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制衡中国影响力,澳大利亚军事重心转回太平洋
As China Looms, Australia’s Military Refocuses on Pacific Neighbors

来源:纽约时报    2019-06-12 06:49



        SYDNEY, Australia — For years, the graduating classes of Australia’s military training programs studied Dari and Pashto, the languages of distant war-torn lands, eschewing the Bahasa and the Pijin of Asia-Pacific nations close to home.        澳大利亚悉尼——多年来,澳大利亚军训项目的毕业班学员都会学习达里语(Dari)和普什图语(Pashto),他们学习这些饱经战事的遥远异邦的语言,却不理会邻近的太平洋国家的印尼语(Bahasa)和皮钦语(Pijin)。
        But as Australian forces wind down their presence in Afghanistan and Iraq, where they have served alongside American troops since the early 2000s, they are renewing their focus on Australia’s island neighbors, which have become a different kind of battleground as China seeks to expand its influence in the region.        但随着澳大利亚军队逐步减少阿富汗和伊拉克的驻军——他们自2000年初开始一直和美军一同驻扎在那里——他们开始重新审视自身对澳大利亚这些岛国邻居的关注。在中国寻求在该地区扩大影响力之际,这里已成为另一种战场。
        Australia has always tried to maintain military forces near home strong enough to deter any potentially hostile power from moving into the South Pacific. But in recent decades, it has not faced such a challenge in the region, and instead has sent its troops again and again to support the United States in faraway conflicts.        一直以来,澳大利亚对本土附近的军力要求是要足以让任何潜在敌对势力不敢进入南太平洋。但近几十年来,它在该地区尚未面临过这样的挑战,于是反而一再把部队派出,支持美国在遥远地带的冲突。
        Now, with China’s rise, Australia faces a new calculation. On one side is the United States, with whom it has a formal military alliance. On the other is China, a country that is largely seen as crucial to Australia’s economic future. China and the United States increasingly view each other as geopolitical rivals.        如今,随着中国的崛起,澳大利亚面临一种全新局面。一边是与其有着正式军事同盟的美国。另一边是在很大程度上被视为对澳大利亚经济前景至关重要的中国。中美两国日益视对方为地缘政治对手。
        Beijing’s reach — and its challenge to America’s dominance in the Pacific — was on vivid display last week as three Chinese warships powered into Sydney Harbor, surprising many Australians.        上周,三艘中国军舰驶入悉尼港,令许多澳大利亚人感到吃惊,北京的影响所及,及其对美国在太平洋地区的挑战姿态,由此展现得淋漓尽致。
        It was not the first time China has made such a military visit, but it was larger than previous port calls. And the Australian government had kept the vessels’ arrival secret, making no announcement beforehand. The timing raised eyebrows, too: The ships docked as the world outside China was marking the 30th anniversary of the Tiananmen Square massacre.        这并非中国第一次举行这样的军事访问,但规模要大过以往的访港。澳大利亚政府也一直对军舰的到来守口如瓶,此前未发布任何声明。访问的时机同样令人生疑:军舰停泊港口正值中国以外的世界在纪念天安门广场大屠杀30周年。
        Prime Minister Scott Morrison played it down as a “reciprocal visit” and a sign of “the relationship that we have.” National security experts, however, called it a show of force by China and a double-edged reminder of Australia’s longstanding relationship with China and its growing military ambitions.        澳大利亚总理斯科特·莫里森(Scott Morrison)轻描淡写地称之为“回访”,显示了“我们之间的关系”。而国家安全专家却称它是中国在展示武力,并且是一石二鸟,同时提示了澳中关系的由来已久以及中国日益壮大的军事野心。
        “No Australian government is willing to risk relations with China by siding too overtly with Washington,” said Hugh White, emeritus professor of strategic studies at the Australian National University. “This has become more and more clear as U.S. rivalry with China has become more overt.”        “没有哪届澳大利亚政府愿意过于明显地支持华盛顿,给同中国的关系造成风险,”澳大利亚国立大学战略研究荣休教授休·怀特(Hugh White)说。“随着美国同中国之间的对立日渐公开化,这一点已经越来越明确。”
        Mr. White said Australia had waning confidence that the United States — a reduced presence on the global stage under President Trump’s America First policy — would prevail over China in their strategic contest.        怀特表示,澳大利亚对于美国在战略竞争中会胜过中国的信心在减退——在特朗普总统的美国优先政策之下,美国在全球舞台上的影响力已降低。
        “That’s because China is far stronger than any previous rival, and America, especially under President Trump, looks weak and unreliable, despite the tough talk,” said Mr. White, who recently published a book titled “How to Defend Australia.”        “这是因为中国比先前的任何对手都更强大,而美国虽言辞强硬,仍显得软弱又不可信,特别是特朗普总统治下的美国,”怀特说,她最近出版了一本题为《如何保卫澳大利亚》(How to Defend Australia)的书。
        As part of its efforts to reacquaint itself with its neighbors, the Australian military just wrapped up an 11-week mission at sea during which its forces took part in exercises with counterparts in Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam and India.        作为重新认识邻国的努力的一部分,澳大利亚军方刚刚完成了为期11周的一次海上行动,期间澳大利亚军队与印度尼西亚、马来西亚、新加坡、斯里兰卡、泰国、越南和印度的军队举行了联合演习。
        Australia’s defenders argue that it never fully left the region, and that its military partnerships endured wartime deployments. But John Blaxland, a military historian who is a professor at the Australian National University, said that “there’s a recognition that we dropped the ball and we need to reinvest.”        支持者认为,澳大利亚从未完全离开该地区,它的军事伙伴关系也是经历过战时部署的考验的。但澳大利亚国立大学教授、军事史学家说,“存在一种认知,即我们之前没做好,现在得重新投入。”
        The Australian military is scheduled to grow by several thousand members, to 62,000. Under a $62 billion program, Australia is building 54 naval vessels, including 12 attack-class submarines, which would double the size of the fleet. And it has purchased 72 F-35A joint strike fighter jets.        澳大利亚军队计划扩编几千人,达到6.2万人。根据一项价值620亿美元的计划,澳大利亚正在建造54艘海军舰艇,其中包括12艘攻击型潜艇,这将使澳大利亚海军规模扩大一倍。它还购买了72架F-35A联合攻击战斗机。
        The trouble, said Sam Roggeveen, director of the International Security Program at the Lowy Institute, a research foundation in Sydney, is that “because the government insists on building all 12 new submarines at home, they will enter service too slowly — we won’t get the first one until the mid-2030s.” And, so far, just two of the F-35s have arrived in Australia.        悉尼的研究基金会洛伊研究所(Lowy Institute)国际安全项目主任萨姆·罗格文(Sam Roggeveen)表示,问题是“由于政府坚持在国内建造全部12艘新潜艇,它们要过很久才能开始服役——我们要到2030年代中期才能拥有第一艘潜艇。”到目前为止,只有两架F-35抵达澳大利亚。
        When the Chinese ships sailed into Sydney Harbor, Mr. Morrison was engaged in a foreign policy exercise of his own. He was in the Solomon Islands, an ally in the Pacific, making his first foreign trip since his election last month and the first visit to that nation by an Australian prime minister since 2008.        当中国船只驶入悉尼港时,莫里森正在进行自己的外交政策实践。他访问了太平洋上的盟友所罗门群岛,这是他自上月当选以来的首次出访,也是自2008年以来澳大利亚总理首次访问该国。
        The stopover was intended to signal that Mr. Morrison’s conservative coalition will continue to make a priority of what it has been calling its Pacific step-up — an effort to increase engagement within the region.        这次中途停留的目的是要表明,莫里森的保守派联盟将继续把其所称的太平洋升级作为首要任务——这是澳大利亚加强在该地区交流的一项努力。
        Australian officials have spent the year visiting and bolstering ties with countries like the Solomons, Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, Fiji and Tonga. While in the Solomons, Mr. Morrison promised a $175 million investment in infrastructure in that country, where from 2003 to 2017 the Australian military was part of a peacekeeping effort that cost billions of dollars.        这一年来,澳大利亚官员访问了所罗门群岛、巴布亚新几内亚、瓦努阿图、斐济和汤加等国,加强了与它们的关系。在所罗门群岛期间,莫里森承诺对该国的基础设施投资1.75亿美元。从2003年到2017年,澳大利亚军队参与了这里耗资数十亿美元的维和行动。
        But the trip was not just a friendly get-together. China loomed over Mr. Morrison’s every move.        但是这次访问不仅仅是一次友好的聚会。莫里森的每个举措都笼罩着中国的阴影。
        The Solomons is one of six Pacific nations that have formal diplomatic relations with Taiwan, an island democracy that Beijing considers Chinese territory.        所罗门群岛是同台湾有正式外交关系的六个太平洋国家之一,北京视台湾这个实行民主制度的岛屿为中国领土。
        China’s lack of formal relations with those nations has frustrated its efforts to expand its political and military clout in the region. The Solomons is feeling pressured to shift allegiance to China, its biggest trading partner. The country’s leaders have said they are weighing such a move, as well as whether to sign on to Beijing’s global Belt and Road infrastructure initiative.        中国与这些太平洋国家之间没有正式关系,阻碍了它在该地区扩大政治和军事影响力。所罗门群岛感到有必要转向其最大的贸易伙伴中国。所罗门领导人表示,他们正在考虑这样的举措,以及是否签署北京的“一带一路”全球基础设施倡议。
        Despite pressure from the United States, Mr. Morrison said he would not use his influence to try to ensure that the Solomons remained an ally of Taiwan. While the United States itself has formal diplomatic relations with China and not Taiwan, it sees a self-ruled Taiwan as a valuable check on China. Last week, the Trump administration said it would sell more than $2 billion in arms to Taiwan.        尽管受到来自美国的压力,莫里森表示,他不会利用自己的影响力去确保所罗群岛仍然是台湾的盟友。虽然美国本身与中国大陆而不是台湾建立了正式外交关系,但它认为自治的台湾是对中国的一个制约,极具价值。上周,特朗普政府表示将向台湾出售超过20亿美元的武器。
        The Australian prime minister has also been determined not to weigh in on the deepening trade war between the United States and China, even as it emerged this month that the Trump administration considered imposing tariffs on Australian aluminum. The administration backed down amid pushback by the State Department and Pentagon officials, who feared damage to the military alliance with their most important ally in the Pacific.        尽管特朗普政府本月曾考虑对澳大利亚出口的铝材征收关税,但澳大利亚总理也决心不介入美中之间不断深化的贸易战。在国务院和五角大楼官员的反对下,特朗普政府做出了让步。这些官员担心同太平洋地区最重要盟友的军事同盟会受到损害。
        At the same time, Australia has looked on with worry, and pushed back at times, as China has pursued a military buildup in the South China Sea aimed at asserting itself on matters of territory, navigation and resources.        与此同时,随着中国在南海进行军事建设,意图在领土、航行和资源问题上维护自己的主权,澳大利亚一直在担忧地观望,有时也会表示反对。
        As 1,200 Australian service members were conducting their recent outreach in the Asia Pacific, Australian warships were trailed by Chinese Navy vessels as they traversed the South China Sea. Australian pilots were also reportedly targeted with lasers while flying over the region; while initial suspicion fell on China, it was not clear who was behind the incident.        就在1200名澳大利亚军人最近在亚太地区进行军事活动的时候,中国海军舰艇就对穿越南海的澳大利亚军舰进行了尾随。据报道,澳大利亚飞行员在飞越该地区时曾遭激光袭击;虽然最初的怀疑指向中国,但目前尚不清楚这起事件的幕后者是谁。
        China now has the world’s largest navy, and is able to field more vessels to more seas, even if its fleet is inferior to America’s. It has ventured into waters near Taiwan and Japan, and has drawn objections from Vietnam and the Philippines with territorial claims in the South China Sea.        中国现在拥有世界上最大的海军,能够在更多的海域部署更多的船只,尽管它的舰队不如美国。它冒险进入台湾和日本附近海域,并因在南海的领土主张而遭到越南和菲律宾的反对。
        It is attempting to build ports in Papua New Guinea, and is increasing surveillance around Manus Island, where the United States and Australia are developing a naval base.        中国正试图在巴布亚新几内亚建造港口,并在马努斯岛周围加强监视。美国和澳大利亚正在该岛建设一个海军基地。
        Mr. White, the emeritus professor, said Australia’s fears were compounded by doubts over whether the United States would fight China if pushed, or if it would withdraw from the region if it could not find a way to contain China.        荣休教授怀特说,澳大利亚的担忧加剧了,因为人们怀疑,如果美国受到逼迫,它是否会与中国作战;又或者如果找不到遏制中国的方法,它是否会撤出该地区。
        “This is a very hard question for Australians, because we can hardly imagine what it would be like to be without America as our major ally,” he said. “But the unthinkable is now being thought about much more seriously than at any time since at least the end of the Vietnam War.”        “这对澳大利亚人来说是一个困难的问题,因为我们很难想象没有美国作为我们的主要盟友会是什么样子,”他说。“但至少自越南战争结束以来,人们现在比以往任何时候都更认真地考虑这个难以想象的问题。”
                
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