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反“送中”抗议与一场“猫抓老鼠”的信息战
A Digital Cat-and-Mouse Battle Between Police and Protesters in Hong Kong

来源:纽约时报    2019-06-14 05:27



        SHANGHAI — As protesters in Hong Kong retreated from police lines in the heart of the city’s business district, a new assault quietly began.        上海——随着香港的抗议者从城市商业区中心的警戒线撤退,一场新的攻击悄然开始。
        It was not aimed at the protesters. It was aimed at their phones.        它的目标不是抗议者,而是他们的手机。
        A network of computers in China bombarded Telegram, a secure messaging app used by many of the protesters, with a huge volume of traffic that disrupted service. The app’s founder, Pavel Durov, said the attack coincided with the Hong Kong protests, a phenomenon that Telegram had seen before.        中国的一个计算机网络攻击了许多抗议者使用的安全消息应用程序Telegram,用大量数据流量扰乱服务。该应用创始人帕维尔·杜罗夫(Pavel Durov)称这次攻击和香港的抗议活动时间重叠,这是Telegram之前看到过的一种现象。
        “This case was not an exception,” he wrote.        “这次事件不是例外,”他写道。
        The Hong Kong police made their own move to limit digital communications. On Tuesday night, as demonstrators gathered near Hong Kong’s legislative building, the authorities arrested the administrator of a Telegram chat group with 20,000 members, even though he was at his home miles from the protest site.        香港警方采取了行动限制数字通讯。周二晚上,当示威者聚集在香港立法会大楼附近时,当局逮捕了一个有2万名成员的Telegram聊天群的管理员,尽管他位于距离抗议地点数英里的家中。
        “I never thought that just speaking on the internet, just sharing information, could be regarded as a speech crime,” the chat leader, Ivan Ip, 22, said in an interview.        “我没有想过纯粹在网上发表言论,纯粹分享资讯,都可以以言入罪,”22岁的群主伊万·叶(Ivan Ip)在采访中说。
        “I only slept four hours after I got out on bail,” he said. “I’m scared that they will show up again and arrest me again. This feeling of terror has been planted in my heart. My parents and 70-year-old grandma who live with me are also scared.”        “我保释出来之后,只睡了四个钟头,”他说。“我很担惊受怕,什么时候他们再过来我家,再有拘捕行动。这种惶恐的感觉,种在我心里。爸爸妈妈和70岁的嬷嬷和我住在一起,他们都很担惊受怕。”
        Past the tear gas, rubber bullets and pepper spray, the Hong Kong protests are also unfolding on a largely invisible, digital front. Protesters and police officers alike have brought a new technological savvy to the standoff.        除了催泪瓦斯、橡皮子弹和胡椒喷雾,香港的抗议活动还在一个基本上看不到的数字战线上展开。抗议者和警察都将一种新的技术技能带入了这场对峙。
        Demonstrators are using today’s networking tools to muster their ranks, share safety tips and organize caches of food and water, even as they take steps to hide their identities.        示威者使用如今的网络工具来集合团队、分享安全提示并组织储存食物和水,他们甚至还采取措施隐藏自己的身份。
        The Hong Kong authorities are responding by tracking the protesters in the digital places where they plan their moves, suggesting they are taking cues from the ways China polices the internet.        香港当局的对策是追踪抗议者计划行动的数字空间,这显示了他们正在效仿中国监管互联网的方式。
        In mainland China, security forces track chat messages, arrest dissidents before protests even occur, and are increasingly detaining people over posts critical of the government. The Hong Kong police have visited the mainland at times looking at ways of stopping terrorism.        在中国大陆,安全部门跟踪聊天信息,在抗议活动发生之前就已经逮捕了异见者,并且越来越多地拘留那些发表批评政府言论的人。香港警方会访问大陆,了解遏制恐怖主义的方法。
        “We know the government is using all kinds of data and trails to charge people later on,” said Lokman Tsui, a professor at the School of Journalism and Communication at the Chinese University of Hong Kong.        “我们知道,政府正在利用各种数据和痕迹,以便秋后算账,”香港中文大学新闻与传播学院教授徐洛文(Lokman Tsui)说。
        Protesters used some of the same tools to organize in 2014, when the Occupy Central demonstration shut down parts of the city for more than two months. But their caution shows a growing awareness that the new digital tools can be a liability as well as an asset.        抗议者使用的工具,有一些在2014年导致该市部分地区瘫痪两个多月的“占中”行动中也使用过。但他们的警惕表明,人们越来越意识到,新的数字工具可能是一种优势,也可能是一种不利因素。
        The police during the Occupy protests used digital messages to justify the arrest of a 23-year-old man, saying he used an online forum to get others to join in. One message that then spread over the WhatsApp chat service included malware, disguised as an app, that appeared to be for eavesdropping on Occupy organizers. Researchers said the malware most likely came from China’s government.        在“占中”抗议期间,警方使用数字信息作为逮捕一名23岁男子的依据,称他利用一个在线论坛吸引其他人加入。随后在WhatsApp聊天服务上传播的一条信息中含有伪装成应用程序的恶意软件,似乎是用来窃听占中运动的组织者的。研究人员说,恶意软件极有可能来自中国政府。
        “People are minimizing their footprints as much as possible,” Mr. Tsui said. “In that regard, it’s very different from five years ago. People are much more conscious and savvy about it.”        “人们正在尽可能地减少自己的足迹,”徐洛文说。“这方面这和五年前大不相同。人们对此更有意识和觉悟。”
        This week’s protests were sparked by the Hong Kong government’s plans to enact a new law that would allow people in the city to be extradited to mainland China, where the court system is closed from public scrutiny and tightly controlled by the Communist Party. On Thursday, city officials delayed plans to consider the legislation.        本周的抗议是由香港政府计划颁布的新法律引发的,它将允许香港人被引渡到中国大陆,在那里,法院系统不接受公众监督,并受到共产党的严格控制。周四,该市官员推迟了审议这项立法的计划。
        Telegram said on its Twitter account that it was able to stabilize its services shortly after the attack began. It described the heavy traffic as a DDoS attack, in which servers are overrun with requests from a coordinated network of computers. In his tweet, Mr. Durov said the attack’s scale was consistent with a state actor.        Telegram通过其Twitter账户说,攻击开始后不久,它就稳定了自己的服务器。它称这种巨大的流量为DDoS攻击,在这种攻击中,联合工作的计算机网络向服务器提出请求,使其超负荷。杜罗夫发推说,袭击的规模符合国家行为者的特征。
        Beijing has been blamed in the past for attacks that silence political speech outside mainland China’s borders. In 2014, an informal online referendum about Hong Kong’s political future drew what at that time was one of the largest such attacks in history. A separate cyberattack in 2015 hijacked traffic from Baidu, the Chinese search engine, to overload a website hosting copies of services blocked in China, like Google, the BBC, and The New York Times.        中国政府过去曾被指责对中国大陆以外的政治言论进行攻击,使其噤声。2014年,一场关于香港政治前途的非正式网上公投就引发了此类攻击,在当时属于史上规模最大的攻击之一。2015年的另一起网络攻击劫持了中国搜索引擎百度的流量,目的是让一个载有谷歌、BBC和《纽约时报》等在中国被屏蔽服务的副本的网站超负荷。
        The Chinese government on Thursday denied it had played a role and said China was often a victim of hacking itself. “We have always advocated that the international community should jointly safeguard the security of cyberspace through dialogue and cooperation,” Geng Shuang, a spokesman for China’s Foreign Ministry, said during a daily news briefing.        中国政府周四否认参与了黑客攻击,并表示中国经常是黑客攻击的受害者。“我们始终主张国际社会应在相互尊重、平等互利的基础上,通过对话合作共同维护网络空间安全,”中国外交部发言人耿爽在每日新闻发布会上表示。
        In Hong Kong, the authorities focused on Mr. Ip, the chat room organizer, whom they saw as a ringleader. He said that the police arrived at his door with a warrant around 8 p.m. More than 10 officers demanded he unlock his phone, explaining that they were searching for extremists in the chat groups he administered.        在香港,当局重点关注该聊天群群主伊万·叶,把他当作主谋。他说警察晚上8点左右持搜捕令到了他家。十多名警察要求他将手机解锁,称他们在搜查他管理的聊天群中的极端分子。
        At first he refused, but when they threatened to use a device to break into his Xiaomi 6 smartphone, he relented and entered the password. They then downloaded his chat records.        他起初拒绝,但当对方威胁要使用某样设备强行打开他的小米6智能手机时,他放缓了态度,输了密码。他们随后下载了他的聊天记录。
        While searching his room, the officers backed down only after his parents complained, he said. The police officers implied that they had found him based on his phone number, which was linked to his identification.        他说搜查他房间时,警察是在他父母抱怨后才停手的。警察曾暗示找到他是通过手机号码,手机号与他的身份相关联。
        While Telegram conversations can be encrypted, the service does not have end-to-end encryption for its group chats, said Mr. Tsui, the communications professor. After Mr. Ip was arrested, groups distributed warnings to use new pay-as-you-go SIM cards or register foreign numbers online to join groups.        传播学教授徐洛文说,虽然Telegram的谈话记录可以加密,但它的群聊服务没有端到端加密功能。伊万·叶被捕后,群组发布过警告,要使用预付费SIM卡,或在网上用外地或外国号码注册加入群组。
        In a statement, the Hong Kong police’s Cybersecurity and Technology Crime Bureau said he had been arrested because he was suspected of conspiracy to cause a public nuisance. He was released on bail, but the police said an investigation was continuing. Mr. Ip said he had not attended any protests this week.        香港警务处网络安全及技术罪案调查科在声明中表示,他被捕的理由是涉嫌串谋公众妨扰。他已获保释,但警方称调查在继续。伊万·叶称,他本周未曾参与任何抗议活动。
        Many of the protesters are college-aged and digitally savvy. They took pains to keep from being photographed or digitally tracked. To go to and from the protests, many stood in lines to buy single-ride subway tickets instead of using their digital payment cards, which can be tracked. Some confronting the police covered their faces with hats and masks, giving them anonymity as well as some protection from tear gas.        许多抗议者在上大学的年龄且精通数码。他们会尽量避免被拍到或被数字追踪。抗议活动往返途中,许多人排队购买单程地铁票,而不用会被追踪的数字支付卡。一些人在同警察对抗时用帽子和面罩遮住面部,以免身份暴露,同时对催泪瓦斯也有一定防护作用。
        On Wednesday, several protesters shouted at bystanders taking photos and selfies, asking those who were not wearing press passes to take pictures only of people wearing masks. Later, a scuffle broke out between protesters and bystanders who were taking photos on a bridge over the main protest area.        周三,几名抗议者冲在一旁拍照和自拍的路人高喊,要求没戴记者证的人只拍戴面罩的人。没过多久,抗议者和此前在主要抗议区域上方的天桥拍照的路人扭打起来。
        For some, the most flagrant symbol of defiance came from showing one’s face.        对一些人而言,露出面孔是最大胆的违抗。
        On Wednesday, as demonstrators prepared for a potential charge by the police, a drone flew overhead. The protesters warned one another about photos from above, but Anson Chan, a 21-year-old recent college graduate, said she was unconcerned about leaving her face exposed, potentially revealing her identity.        周三,在示威者为警方可能发起的控告做着准备时,一架无人机飞过头顶。抗议者互相提醒,要注意上方在拍照,但现年21岁、大学刚毕业的安森·陈(Anson Chan)表示,露出面孔进而可能泄露身份,并不是她担心的事。
        Ms. Chan said she felt compelled to join the protests out of concern about the proposed law.        安森·陈说,出于对拟议法律的担忧,她感到必须加入抗议。
        “Once people get taken to China, they can’t speak for themselves,” said Ms. Chan, who had traveled nearly two hours from Lok Ma Chau in northern Hong Kong to show support and hand out supplies after seeing scenes of violence on the news.        “人一旦被带到中国,就无法为自己辩护,”安森·陈说,看到新闻上的暴力情形后,她花了近两小时从香港北部的落马洲赶来参与支持,帮忙分发物资。
        The mainland’s restrictions were on the minds of many.        很多人都在担心大陆的限制。
        “The bottom line is whether to trust Beijing,” said Mr. Tsui, the communications professor. “This is a government that routinely lies to its own citizens, that censors information, that doesn’t trust its own citizens. You can’t ask us to trust you if you don’t trust us.”        “根本问题就是要不要信任北京,”传播学教授徐洛文说。“这是个一贯会对民众撒谎、审查信息、不信任自己民众的政府。你不信任我们,也就不能要求我们信任你。”
        “These kids that are out there, all the young people, they’re smart,” he added. “They know not to trust Beijing.”        “这些孩子都在那里,所有的年轻人,他们很聪明,”他又说。“他们知道不能信任北京。”
                
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