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菲律宾指中国船只撞沉其渔船,南海争端再起波澜
Sinking of Philippine Boat Puts South China Sea Back at Issue

来源:纽约时报    2019-06-14 10:31



        MANILA — Tensions in the disputed South China Sea ratcheted up on Thursday as the Philippine government protested the sinking of a Filipino boat by a Chinese fishing vessel, which left 22 Filipino fishermen floating at sea before they were rescued by a Vietnamese boat.        马尼拉——周四,菲律宾政府对中国渔船在南中国海撞沉一艘菲律宾船只的事件提出抗议,这个有争议海域的紧张气氛进一步升级。22名菲律宾渔民在海中漂浮了一段时间后,被越南的船只救起。
        President Rodrigo Duterte’s spokesman, Salvador Panelo, demanded that China investigate the Sunday collision and punish the crew of the Chinese boat, which the Philippine government said had intentionally struck the vessel, leaving the Filipino fishermen at the “mercy of the elements.”        菲律宾总统罗德里戈·杜特地(Rodrigo Duterte)的发言人萨尔瓦多·帕内洛(Salvador Panelo)要求中国调查发生在周日的撞船事件,并惩罚中方船员。菲律宾政府说,中国船只故意撞击了他们的渔船,丢下菲律宾渔民不管,只得“听天由命”。
        “Such an act of desertion is as inhuman as it is barbaric,” Mr. Panelo said in a statement.        “这种遗弃行为既不人道,也很野蛮,”帕内洛在一份声明中说。
        Ian Storey, a senior fellow at the ISEAS-Yusof Ishak Institute in Singapore and an expert on the geopolitics of the South China Sea, said that if the Chinese vessel had deliberately rammed a stationary Filipino boat, it would be a clear breach of international norms.        新加坡尤索夫伊萨东南亚研究院(ISEAS-Yusof Ishak Institute)高级研究员、研究南海地缘政治的专家伊恩·斯托雷(Ian Storey)说,如果中国船只故意撞击了一艘抛锚的菲律宾船只,那显然违反了国际准则。
        “That’s not only an act of aggression but a violation of the age-old obligation to assist mariners in distress, irrespective of whether the ships are operating in disputed waters,” Mr. Storey said.        “这不仅是一种侵略行为,而且违反了对遇险海员给予援助的古老义务,不管船只是否在有争议的水域作业,”斯托雷说。
        With six governments — those of China, the Philippines, Vietnam, Malaysia, Taiwan and Brunei — claiming overlapping parts of the South China Sea, the resource-rich waterway is a potential flash point for regional military conflict.        包括中国、菲律宾、越南、马来西亚、台湾和文莱在内的六个政府对南中国海的部分重叠海域宣称拥有主权,这条资源丰富的水道可能成为地区军事冲突的导火索。
        Anxiety heightened several years ago when China began turning disputed shoals in the South China Sea into fortified artificial islands. On the reclaimed turf, the Chinese military now has shelters for surface-to-air missiles and the capacity to land fighter jets, even though an international tribunal ruled in 2016 that Beijing has no right to claim any of the spits of land as its own.        几年前,当中国开始将南海有争议的浅滩改造成设有防御工事的人工岛时,这种焦虑有所加剧。在这些填海造出来的土地上,中国军队现在拥有存放地对空导弹的防空洞,战斗机也可以在这里着陆,尽管一家国际法庭在2016年裁定,北京无权将这片水域的任何一块土地据为己有。
        The Philippines was the country that took China to court, and the tribunal at The Hague delivered a resounding rebuke to Beijing’s territorial ambitions.        菲律宾是向国际法庭起诉中国的国家,设在海牙的国际仲裁庭强有力地驳回了中国的领土野心。
        But since taking office in 2016, just days after that ruling, President Rodrigo Duterte of the Philippines has courted China as a strategic partner and distanced himself from the United States, the Philippines’ traditional ally. Mr. Duterte has suggested that a smaller country like the Philippines cannot dislodge a geopolitical power like China and must accept the reality of the new security landscape.        但自从菲律宾总统罗德里戈·杜特地在2016年的裁决作出几天后上台以来,一直把中国当作战略伙伴来拉拢,同时与菲律宾的传统盟友美国保持距离。杜特地已暗示,像菲律宾这样的小国无法把中国这样的地缘政治大国赶走,必须接受这种新安全格局的现实。
        Mr. Duterte most recent trip to China, in the spring, was his fourth since becoming president, and he returned yet again with billions of dollars’ worth of pledges from Chinese businessmen.        杜特地最近一次访问中国是在今年春天,这是其就任总统以来的第四次访华,他再次带着中国商人做出的价值数十亿美元的承诺回到菲律宾。
        But the sinking of the Filipino boat, FB Gimber1, which came after a swarm of hundreds of Chinese vessels blocked Filipino fishermen from reaching their traditional fishing grounds earlier this year, has thrown bilateral relations off balance.        今年早些时候,数百艘中国船只曾阻止菲律宾渔民进入他们传统的捕鱼海域,现在又发生了菲律宾渔船“FB Gimber1”号沉没的事件,这些都给双边关系带来了危险。
        Filipino politicians on both sides of the aisle were demanding answers from China. It was not clear whether the sinking, if not accidental, was in any way directed by Beijing or simply a rogue act.        菲律宾执政党和反对党的政客都在要求中国作出解释。目前尚不清楚这个沉船事件(如果不是意外事故的话)是受到了北京的指使,还是只是一种流氓行为。
        “Even if this is a Chinese fishing boat, I think this is just an incident among the people, not related to governments,” said Hu Bo, an associate researcher at the Institute of Ocean Research at Peking University in Beijing.        “即使这是一艘中国的渔船,我认为这只是民间的一起事故,和官方没有关系,”北京大学海洋研究院副研究员胡波说。
        In years past, Chinese fishing boats have launched assertive forays into disputed waters, with white hulls, as Coast Guard ships are known, keeping a discreet distance.        在过去几年里,中国渔船多次强行闯入有争议的海域,并有白船,也就是中国海警的船只保持着谨慎的距离航行。
        But in some cases, the Chinese Coast Guard has intervened directly, such as in 2016, when it forced the breaking of the tow line of an Indonesian maritime task force vessel, which had been hauling in a Chinese fishing boat operating well within Indonesia’s exclusive economic zone.        但有些时候,中国海警直接进行干预,比如2016年,它强行切断了一艘印尼海上特遣部队船只的拖缆,当时该船正拖着一艘深入到印尼专属经济区作业的中国渔船。
        On Wednesday, Defense Secretary Delfin Lorenzana of the Philippines said the Chinese boat had intentionally rammed the FB Gimber1 as it was anchored near Reed Bank, known in the Philippines as Recto Bank, a disputed area where the two countries have discussed jointly exploring for oil and gas.        菲律宾国防部长德尔芬·洛伦扎纳(Delfin Lorenzana)周三说,中国船只故意撞击“FB Gimber1”号时,该船正在礼乐滩(Reed Bank,菲律宾称之为“勒道滩”[Recto Bank])附近抛锚停泊,两国曾讨论过在这片有争议海域共同勘探石油和天然气。
        “We condemn in the strongest terms the cowardly action of the Chinese fishing vessel and its crew for abandoning the Filipino crew,” Mr. Lorenzana said. “This is not the expected action from a responsible and friendly people.”        “我们以最强烈的言辞谴责中国渔船及其船员抛弃菲律宾船员的不光彩行为,”洛伦扎纳说。“这不是人们期待的来自一个负责任的友好人民的行为。”
        In Beijing, a spokesman at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs called the incident “an ordinary maritime traffic accident.” The spokesman, Geng Shuang, refused to say whether the Chinese ship was responsible, saying China would address that question directly with the Philippines. But whichever side caused the collision, “their escape should be condemned,” Mr. Geng said.        中国外交部的一名发言人把该事件称为一起“普通的海上交通事故”。发言人耿爽拒绝回答涉事中国船只是否对事故负有责任的问题,他说,中国将就这个问题与菲律宾直接进行讨论。但耿爽说,无论哪方导致了撞船,“他们的逃跑都应该受到谴责。”
        Another Chinese official, Wu Shicun, with the National Institute for South China Sea Studies, said there was no proof that a Chinese fishing vessel was responsible for the ramming of the Philippine boat, much less the abandonment of its crew. Then he questioned whether the vessel was Chinese at all.        另一位中国官员、南海研究院的吴士存说,没有证据表明中国渔船对撞沉这艘菲律宾船只负有责任,更不用说丢下船员不管了。之后,他又质疑造事渔船是否属于中国。
        “He has no 100 percent proof that it was Chinese fishermen,” Mr. Wu said of Mr. Lorenzana.        “他没有百分之百的证据表明那是中国渔民干的,”吴士存提到洛伦扎纳时说。
        “I don’t think it was the Chinese fishing boat’s intention to sink the Philippine boat,” Mr. Wu said, suggesting that the offending vessel could have been Vietnamese.        “我不觉得是中国渔船故意撞沉了菲律宾的渔船,”吴士存说。他还暗示,导致事故的船只可能是越南的。
        Vietnamese fishermen have complained of Chinese fishing boats, equipped with satellite technology and high-pressure hoses, ramming their vessels in disputed waters and taking their valuables.        越南渔民曾抱怨配备卫星技术和高压水管的中国渔船,在有争议的水域撞击他们的船只,抢走他们的贵重物品。
        Echoing the assessment of the Philippine military’s western command, a former chief of the Philippine Navy, Alexander Pama, said there was no doubt that the Chinese vessel had intentionally hit the Philippine boat. He recommended that both countries agree on a “neutral body” to investigate the collision and offer recommendations in line with international law.        菲律宾前海军司令亚历山大·帕玛(Alexander Pama)赞同菲律宾军方西区司令部的看法,他说,毫无疑问是中国船只故意撞击了菲律宾船只。他建议,两国同意让一家“中立机构”来调查这次撞船事件,并让该机构提出符合国际法的建议。
        Beijing has ignored the 2016 tribunal ruling that dismissed its territorial claims to most of the South China Sea.        国际仲裁庭2016年的裁决驳回了中国对南中国海大部分区域的领土主张,但北京对裁决不予理睬。
        Mr. Pama has been on the forefront of an effort by the Philippine defense establishment to counter what it sees as Chinese encroachment on Philippine territory. He warned against Beijing being allowed to take over a shuttered shipyard at a former American naval base in Subic Bay, which he said could be converted into a listening post for the Chinese.        帕马曾一直站在菲律宾国防界反击其视为中国侵犯菲律宾领土行动的努力的最前沿。他曾警告菲律宾政府,不要让北京接管苏比克湾(Subic Bay)前美国海军基地一家已经关闭的造船厂。他说,该工厂可能会被改造为中国的一个监听站。
        The Philippine foreign minister, Teodoro Locsin Jr., said Thursday on Twitter that he had filed a formal diplomatic protest against China. Senator Risa Hontiveros, one of Mr. Duterte’s most vocal critics, called for the government to immediately recall its ambassador and consuls from China.        菲律宾外交部长小特奥多罗·洛钦(Teodoro Locsin Jr.)周四在Twitter上说,他已正式向中国提出了外交抗议。参议员丽莎·迪夫洛斯(Risa Hontiveros)是杜特地最直言不讳的批评者之一,她呼吁政府立即从中国召回大使和领事。
        “The sinking of our ship mirrors the state of Philippine sovereignty,” Ms. Hontiveros said. “President Duterte’s continued subservience to China can no longer hold the country’s sinking sovereignty afloat.”        “我们的船被撞沉一事反映了菲律宾的主权状况,”迪夫洛斯说。“杜特地总统继续向中国屈服的做法,已支撑不起我国不断下沉的主权。”
                
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